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Online ISSN: 2714-5018
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ONLINE PAPER PUBLISHING - Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact the undersigned authors.

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF DRY SEASON FLUTED PUMPKIN (UGU) FARMING IN ABA METROPOLIS OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: AMUSA T. A., IHEKE O. R.

Abstracts: The study examined economics of dry season fluted pumpkin (Ugu) farming in Aba metropolis of Abia State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 120 dry season vegetable farmers. The data were collected in April 2019 immediately after the completion of dry season vegetable (ugu) production that occurred between November 2018 and March 2019. Data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive and inferential statistics. The results on economic indicators: Net Return (NR) of ₦90,515.00, Profitability Index (PI) of 0.736 and Benefic Cost Ratio (BCR) of 3.80 showed that urban dry season vegetable (fluted pumpkin) production is a highly profitable farm enterprise in the study area. The result of the regression estimate showed that Cob-Douglas functional form had the best fit of R2 value (0.9583). Age of the farmers, gender, education, experience, farm size, access to credit and cooperative are factors that influence profitability of the vegetable farmers. Some of the challenges confronting the urban dry season vegetable farmers include: inadequate land for farming due to urbanization, inadequate capital and shortage of water supply among others. The study recommends improved engagement of farmers in the area in dry season vegetable production to take economic advantage of its profitability to improve their household income and standard of living.

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Pages: 1-17

Cite this Article: AMUSA T. A., IHEKE O. R. , "ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF DRY SEASON FLUTED PUMPKIN (UGU) FARMING IN ABA METROPOLIS OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 1-17 #JAEES


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD SUPPLY AND HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE IN NIGERIA 1981-2016

Authors: ALI A., BIAM C. K., AYOOLA J. B., EZIHE J. A. C.

Abstracts: This study was undertaken to analyze the relationship between food supply and consumption expenditure in Nigeria 1981-2016. Annual time series da ta collected from secondary sources were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as unit root test, Johansen co-integration test, growth model and correlation. The results of analysis showed that the mean value of food supply was 7.7 trillion Naira, the mean value of exports was 1.26 trillion Naira, the mean value of imports was 1.68 trillion naira and the mean value of household consumption expenditure was 959 billion naira over the period under review. The result showed instantaneous growth rate for food supply (6.3%), exports (4.5%), imports (6.40%) and household consumption expenditure (10.5%). The result, also, showed that food supply, exports, imports and household consumption expenditure all accelerated in growth over the period under review. Result, also, revealed positive relationship between food supply and household consumption expenditure with correlation coefficient of 0.917 and significant at 1% probability level. The study concludes that food supply have positive relationship with household consumption expenditure. Therefore, policy makers should develop programs aimed at making food available to consumers at affordable price.

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Pages: 18-33

Cite this Article: ALI A., BIAM C. K., AYOOLA J. B., EZIHE J. A. C. , "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD SUPPLY AND HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE IN NIGERIA 1981-2016", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 18-33 #JAEES


ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN AGRI-PRENEURSHIP OPERATIONS AMONG FISH MARKETERS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: ETUK, UNYIME ROBSON

Abstracts: This study was undertaken to analyze the relationship between food supply and consumption expenditure in Nigeria 1981-2016. Annual time series da ta collected from secondary sources were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as unit root test, Johansen co-integration test, growth model and correlation. The results of analysis showed that the mean value of food supply was 7.7 trillion Naira, the mean value of exports was 1.26 trillion Naira, the mean value of imports was 1.68 trillion naira and the mean value of household consumption expenditure was 959 billion naira over the period under review. The result showed instantaneous growth rate for food supply (6.3%), exports (4.5%), imports (6.40%) and household consumption expenditure (10.5%). The result, also, showed that food supply, exports, imports and household consumption expenditure all accelerated in growth over the period under review. Result, also, revealed positive relationship between food supply and household consumption expenditure with correlation coefficient of 0.917 and significant at 1% probability level. The study concludes that food supply have positive relationship with household consumption expenditure. Therefore, policy makers should develop programs aimed at making food available to consumers at affordable price.

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Pages: 34-47

Cite this Article: ETUK, UNYIME ROBSON , "ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN AGRI-PRENEURSHIP OPERATIONS AMONG FISH MARKETERS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 34-47 #JAEES


CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY OF PRO-VITAMIN A CASSAVA AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: IGWE C. O. K., NWOKOCHA I. N., OKEKE E. K.

Abstracts: The study assessed the consumption frequency of pro-vitamin A cassava among rural households in Anambra State, Nigeria. A multi stage samplingprocedure was adopted to sample 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, percentage, tables and multiple regression models. Results showed a mean age of 45years, 65.8% of the consumers were female, 61.7% of them married and 13years as mean years of education. The mean household size of the respondents was 6 persons with mean farming experience of 9years. On the frequency of consumption of pro-vit-A cassava variety, a grand mean of 1.42 indicates that the consumption of Vit-A cassava variety asfufu, eba, and tapioca was not frequent in the study area. The consumers have negative perception about pro- vit-A cassava with the grand mean of 4.0. The result of the hypothesis 1 showed that household size and availability of pro-vit-A cassava were significant at 1% level and were directly related to frequency of consumption. For hypothesis 2, the coefficient of pro-vit-A not readily available and not good for children's health were significant at 1% level and directly related to frequency of consumption. The study concludes that consumers do not frequently consume pro-vit-A cassava, this could be as a result of the variety not readily available in the study area. Therefore, extension workers should increase their contact with rural households to educate them more on the health benefits of this cassava variety in order to improve the perception of consumers on pro-vit-A cassava variety.

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Pages: 48-61

Cite this Article: IGWE C. O. K., NWOKOCHA I. N., OKEKE E. K. , "CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY OF PRO-VITAMIN A CASSAVA AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 48-61 #JAEES


IMPACT OF UNCONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER ON VULNERABLE RURAL HOUSEHOLDS' FOOD CONSUMPTION AND DIETARY DIVERSITY: THE CASE OF HOUSEHOLD UPLIFTING PROGRAMME IN NORTHCENTRAL NIGERIA

Authors: NWOKO I. C., AYE G. C., UMEH J. C., ABU O.

Abstracts: This study analyzed the impact of cash transfer programme on vulnerable rural household food consumption and dietary diversity in the northcentral zone of Nigeria using a cross sectional data. A total number of 408 respondents comprising beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries were drawn from Benue and Nasarawa states using multistage sampling and the sample size was determine using Taro Yamane 1973. Thepropensity score matching (PSM) model was used and average treatment on the treated (Att) was calculated. The result showed a positive and significant impact of cash transfer on household food consumption and dietary diversity ofvulnerable beneficiary households by 37and 42 percent respectively. Consequent on findings and having empirical evidence of the Household Uplifting Programme impact on household Food Consumption and Dietary Diversity, it is recommended that policy makers should ensure livelihood support for graduating beneficiary households for (i) sufficient house welfare outcomes and sustainable impact on household and (ii) toreduce hunger and malnutrition among vulnerable households

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Pages: 62-81

Cite this Article: NWOKO I. C., AYE G. C., UMEH J. C., ABU O. , "IMPACT OF UNCONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER ON VULNERABLE RURAL HOUSEHOLDS' FOOD CONSUMPTION AND DIETARY DIVERSITY: THE CASE OF HOUSEHOLD UPLIFTING PROGRAMME IN NORTHCENTRAL NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 62-81 #JAEES


GENDER - ACCESS TO FARM - LABOUR -AND COPING STRATEGIES: IMPLICATION FOR FOOD PRODUCTIVITY IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA.

Authors: KANU R. U., OBIOMA QUEEN O.

Abstracts: The study focused on the main sources of farm labour, coping strategies and constraints adopted by each gender towards scarcity of labour in the rural areas of Benue State, Nigeria. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in data analysis while structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. Copies of questionnaire were distributed to randomly selected gender and 240 were returned which formed the sample size. The Results of the study showed that household labour on weeding (29.1%) was the most available labour to female farmers. Result further revealed that male farmers had more access to hired labour than the female. The most adopted coping strategies when family labour was inaccessible and cost of hiring labour was high were, selling/leasing of personal properties by the male farmers and reduction of portion of farm land to be cultivated by the female farmers. The major factors militating against access to farm labour by gender were inadequacy of fund, inadequacy of water, inadequacy of the farm input, lack of good road, and high cost of farm labour. The study recommended that appropriate labour-saving machines and implements should be provided for farmer to ease the labour constraint.

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Pages: 82-90

Cite this Article: KANU R. U., OBIOMA QUEEN O. , "GENDER - ACCESS TO FARM - LABOUR -AND COPING STRATEGIES: IMPLICATION FOR FOOD PRODUCTIVITY IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA.", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 82-90 #JAEES


EFFECTS OF TILLAGE AND VARIETY ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) GROWN IN BILLIRI, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: MADINA P., NWANOJUO M. N.

Abstracts: A field experiment was carried out in Tal, Billiri Local Government Gombe State in the rainy season of 2019 to investigate the Effects of tillage and variety on the growth and yield of Soybean (Glycin max L.) grown. The tillage used were Zero and manual tillage and combination (use of chemical and manual tillage). The varieties used were TGX 1448-2E (Mediaum maturing), TGX 1835-10E (Early maturing) and TGX 1485-1D (Early maturity) all planted at the spacing of 20 x 75cm. The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were combined to have 10 plots in a block with 1 meter between the block and 0.5 meters within the plots. During the research, growth characters like plant height and number of leaves were measured. Other characters like days to flower, days of maturity, number of pod per plant, seeds per plot, shelling percentage, 1000 seed weight and see yield were also recorded. The results of the experiment revealed that soybean generally responded to both tillage and varietal effects (Indicate the statistics). All the parameters studied significantly (P<=0.05) responded to the both tillage and varietal effects where manual tillage was observed to perform higher in both growth parameters and grain yield. Based on the result obtained it can be suggested that the use of manual tillage and the use of TGX 1448-2E led to optimum yield, therefore suggested to farmers in Tal, Bbilliri local government, Gombe State, Nigeria to use TFX-1448-2E and manual tillage for optimum yield.

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Pages: 91-106

Cite this Article: MADINA P., NWANOJUO M. N. , "EFFECTS OF TILLAGE AND VARIETY ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) GROWN IN BILLIRI, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 91-106 #JAEES


INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL ACCESS TO INCOME AND FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN VERSUS PRODUCTIVITY OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD IN MAKURDI LGA OF BENUE STATE

Authors: OCHALIBE A. I., GIDABO E. H., ALI H.

Abstracts: The study analyzed the effect differential access to income and food consumption on productivity of rural households in Benue State of Nigeria utilizing descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings from the study showed that food rich in carbohydrate was mostly consumed with low access to protein. Household income was a significant determinant of the productivity of labor among rural households. As the household income increases, their productivity in terms of total farm output also increased because they tend to invest more resources on their farm and concentrate less on leisure. Furthermore, foods rich in carbohydrate were available, adequate, accessed and mostly consumed with low access to protein rich foods. It was recommended that the earning capacity and income diversification opportunities of rural household should be enhanced to prevent the mental and physical damages that accompany inadequate food intake there by achieving labor productivity and other nutritional outcomes.

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Pages: 107-115

Cite this Article: OCHALIBE A. I., GIDABO E. H., ALI H. , "INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL ACCESS TO INCOME AND FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN VERSUS PRODUCTIVITY OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD IN MAKURDI LGA OF BENUE STATE", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 107-115 #JAEES


EFFECT OF FERTILIZER PRICE ON CEREALS CROP PRODUCTION IN A DUAL MARKET AND COMMAND MECHANISM

Authors: OCHALIBE A. I., JUMBA G., ONAH OGOCHUKWU

Abstracts: This studyanalyzed the effect of fertilizer price on selected cereals production inNasarawaState. The effect of fertilizer price on cereals output and the effect of fertilizer price on fertilizer quantity demanded wereanalyzed. The study made used of data on Fertilizer Procurement and Sales and Crop production between 2001-2013 from Nasarawa State Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources. Dataweretried on three different functional forms, linear, semi-log and double log functional forms. The results showed that fertilizer price had a significant relationship with maize, sorghum and riceoutputs. Fertilizer price also affected the quantity of fertilizer demanded. However, the predominance of command mechanism over price mechanism arising from distortion in the fertilizer marketmade price signaling and incentive functions failure apparent. It was concludedthat the price elasticity of fertilizer with respect to both output and quantity demanded were negative.Distortions in the fertilizer market by middlemen increased the price level and hence scarcity resulting from market failure.It was recommended that regulatory agencies should avoid the use of fertilizer subsidy as a policy instrument and regulate the activities of middlemen for prices to perform its function of signaling, incentive, rational and distributional functionsin rural household economies.

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Pages: 116-128

Cite this Article: OCHALIBE A. I., JUMBA G., ONAH OGOCHUKWU , "EFFECT OF FERTILIZER PRICE ON CEREALS CROP PRODUCTION IN A DUAL MARKET AND COMMAND MECHANISM", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 116-128 #JAEES


ASSESSMENT OF BENEFITS OF NIGER DELTA DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION CASSAVA PROJECT ON PARTICIPNTS' LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES IN BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: OMINIKARI ABRAHAM G., AGBAREVO MACHIADIKWE N.

Abstracts: The study assessed benefits of Niger Delta Development Commission Cassava Project on participants' livelihood activities in Bayelsa State. Objectives that guided the study were participants' level of participation in Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) cassava project and the relationship between the benefits of NDDC cassava project participation and the livelihood activities of participants in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 150 farmers that participated for the study. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as three (3) point Likert type scale, and inferential statistics such as simple regression model. The findings showed that farmers participated actively in training of all the activities such as adequate and timely supply agro-chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers etc.) 2.1, access to improved planting materials (stem) 2.2, provision of essential farm implements' (hoes, cutlass, spade etc.) 2.1, procurement of irrigation equipments (pumps, pipes etc.) 2.1, training on modern farming techniques on cassava 2.3, advisory services on cassava farm enterprises 2.4, provision of loans/credits 2.3, marketing of produce 2.6, income for my enterprise 2.7, procurement of agro-processing 2.9, infrastructural faci1ities2.7, acquisition of farm management skills 2.9, and availability of food for my household 2.7. The regression coefficient of the benefits of NDDC cassava project participation was positive and significant at 1% level. The Hypothesis showed that the computed F-ratio of 106.724 was significant at 1% level, implying that it is higher than the critical F value at 1% significant level, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected and accepted the alternative hypothesis, concluding that level of participation significantly influenced the benefits derived in participating in NDDC cassava project in Bayelsa State. The study concludes that farmers actively participated and benefited from the project, the study therefore recommends that the entire project be extend to other States that are under NDDC in other to improve the living standard ofrural dwellers.

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Pages: 129-140

Cite this Article: OMINIKARI ABRAHAM G., AGBAREVO MACHIADIKWE N. , "ASSESSMENT OF BENEFITS OF NIGER DELTA DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION CASSAVA PROJECT ON PARTICIPNTS' LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES IN BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 129-140 #JAEES


EFFECTS OF FARMER-HERDERS CONFLICT ON CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: EKWE K. C., OBINNA L. O., ONU S. E

Abstracts: This study assessed the effect of farmer-herders conflict on cassava production in Abia State, Nigeria. The study made use of multistage sampling procedure in selecting 120 respondents. Data for the study were generated from primary source and collected through the use of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, mean score, percetages and standard deviation and inferential statistics such as simple and multiple regression models were used in analyzing the data collected for the study. The respondents affirmed that farmers-herders cinflict were caused by indiscriminate busy burning (X=3.47). Lack of access to water points (X=3.38), disregard to rules and regulations (X=3.36), land encroachment (X=3.33), change in climate condition (X=3.29), land use policy that vested control of land to Government authorities (X=3.28), crops damage by cattle (X=3.27), killing of stray cattle (X=3.21), land tenure system and perceived hatred (X=3.08) among others. In the study area, the average yield of cassava was 3027.57kg while cassava stem was 1669.24kg. The income from the cassava yield was N59712.86 while that of stem was N22476.84. The total average tield and income from cassava production was 466.81kg and N82189.7 respectively. The perceived effects of the conflict on cassava production in the study area were hunger and poverty (X=3.68), loss of lives and total insecurity in the area (X=3.64), low income generation (X=3.56), loss of crops (X=3.43), and rise in price of the commodity (X=3.27). The results showed that the farmers perceived that farm land should be allocated free to farmers (X=3.49), conflict between individual and groups in the community should be resolved amicably instead of degenerating into destruction of life and properties (X=3.41), among others. The result of regression estimate of the effect of farmers-herders conflicts was statistically significant at 5% probability level and negatively related to cassava production. The study concluded that farmer-herders conflict should be prevented and resolved peacefully to allow both parties coexist without conflict in the study area. The study therefore recommended that lawas should be provided by Abia State Government to prevent open grazing in the state.

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Pages: 141-152

Cite this Article: EKWE K. C., OBINNA L. O., ONU S. E , "EFFECTS OF FARMER-HERDERS CONFLICT ON CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 141-152 #JAEES


IMPROVING CAPABILITIES OF YOUTHS UTILIZATION OF EXISTING AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: UGBOAJA, CHUKWUEMEKA I.

Abstracts: The study assessed improving capabailities of youths utilization of existing and emerging technologies for cassava production in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey design and questionnaire as instrument for data collection. Multi-stage sampling technique. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select a sample size of 360 respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean and inferential statistics such as Z-test. Findings of the study indicated that existing technologies were available and emerging technologies were not available for improving capabilities of youths in Cassava production with the pooled X=3.08 and X=1.56 emerging technologies respectively. it was indicated that both existing technologies X=2.57 and emerging technologies X=2.70 were used in planting operation but emerging technologies were significantly used. Hypothesis of no significant mean difference between available existing and emerging technologies for improving capabilities of youth in Cassava Production was not rejected because Zcal = 0.926 < Zcal = 1.96. The study concluded that the emerging technologies were not normally used for improving capabilities of youths in secondary schools for cassava production. The study recommends among others that the School Board should partner with the governmenr, UNICEF and Private sector to equip secondary schools with emerging technologies in Cassava production to enhance food security and income of the schools.

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Pages: 153-161

Cite this Article: UGBOAJA, CHUKWUEMEKA I. , "IMPROVING CAPABILITIES OF YOUTHS UTILIZATION OF EXISTING AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 153-161 #JAEES


EFFECT OF IMPROVED VEGETABLE TECHNOLOGIES ON THE YIELD AND INCOME OF VEGETABLE FARMERS IN ABA AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF ABI STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: ANYANWU E. V., UKOHA J. C. I., OKEZIE G. A.

Abstracts: The study ascertained the effect of improved vegetable technologies on the yield and income of vegetable farmers in Aba Agricultural Zone of Abia State, Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling procedure was used in selecting 120 vegetable farmers that participated in the study and structured questionnaire was used to elicit information. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Major result showed that the mean income of vegetable farmers per month was N25,975.00 and seven out of eight different vegetable production technologies disseminated to farmers were utilized with grand mean score of 2.9 on a 4-point scale. The technology on improved seeds was highly utilized with a mean score of 3.4. The farmers recorded an increase in vegetable yield with a gran mean score of 2.8. The hypothesis result showed that there is no significant relationship between utilization ADP vegetable production technologies and the income of vegetable farmers in the study area, thereby accepting the null hypothesis. The study concluded that the imporved production technologies increased the yield of vegetable but did not reflect in the income. Thereforem farmers should be trained on technologies that will help them process and add value to their farm produce.

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Pages: 162-173

Cite this Article: ANYANWU E. V., UKOHA J. C. I., OKEZIE G. A. , "EFFECT OF IMPROVED VEGETABLE TECHNOLOGIES ON THE YIELD AND INCOME OF VEGETABLE FARMERS IN ABA AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF ABI STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/Apr2021, Volume 7 - Issue 1, April 2021 Edition, 162-173 #JAEES