JAEES
Print ISSN:   2545-5176
Online ISSN: 2714-5018
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ONLINE PAPER PUBLISHING - Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact the undersigned authors.

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING INCOME GENERATION OF FADAMA IIIAF BENEFICIARIES IN NIGER STATE

Authors: ELOYI, S. ALI, A.

Abstracts: The study was carried out to ascertain factors affecting income generation Fadama IIIAF rural beneficiaries in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed for selecting the respondents and data were collected using structured questionnaires from a total of 100 Fadama IIAF Beneficiaries. The methodology adopted include ordinary lest square (OLS) used to analyse factors affecting income generation and simple descriptive statistics used to analyse problems encountered by Fadama IIIAF. The results in the lead equations indicated that the model had F ratio of 10.5 and 1.8 for beneficiaries and non beneficiaries at 1% level of significance with coefficient of determination, R2, of 83% and 23%. The analysis revealed that seed, farm size and agro chemical were significant factors affecting income generation at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. Problems encountered by Fadama IIIAF include pest (70%) credit facilities (30%), seed and agrochemical. Based on the finding the significant variables which influence income generation should be taken into consideration and it is recommended that government should provide loan facilities and seed timely. Further impact of Fadama should focus on curtailing pest and disease since it is the major problem. A careful integration of these income determinants in rural development program will no doubt improve the Fadama IIIAF beneficiaries’ purchasing power as well as the income generation in the study area.

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Pages: 01-10

Cite this Article: ELOYI, S. ALI, A. , "ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING INCOME GENERATION OF FADAMA IIIAF BENEFICIARIES IN NIGER STATE", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 01-10 #JAEES


ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING CHOICE OF ENTERPRISE AMONG SMALLHOLDER MAIZE AND RICE FARMERS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: ELOYI, S. ALI, A.

Abstracts: This study analysed factors influencing choice of enterprise among small holder maize and rice farmer in Niger State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all maize and rice farmers in the study area. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting 200 farmers. Data were collected using questionnaire. Multinomial logit regression model was used to estimate factors influencing the choice of enterprise among small holder maize and rice farmers in the study area. The findings revealed that many (55.5%) of the farmers chose combines enterprise while 39.0% and 5.50% of the farmers chose sole maize enterprise and rice enterprise respectively. The multinomial logit regression model showed that education, farm size and yield from the chosen enterprise had positive and significant effect on farmer’s choice of an enterprise This implies that the probability of choosing maize enterprise increased with level of education earned from the enterprise, farm size and yield from chosen enterprise while the probability of choosing rice in respect to the reference group is based on yield. The partial elasticities of education, farm size and yield for maize were elastic, while all other factors across the group as classified were inelastic. The study, therefore, recommended that agents should create more awareness on different types, methods and techniques available for maize and rice cultivation to further improve their adoption. Training and farm advisory Services on improved management practices to boost maize and rice production should be given to the farmers by extension agents.

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Pages: 11-21

Cite this Article: ELOYI, S. ALI, A. , "ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING CHOICE OF ENTERPRISE AMONG SMALLHOLDER MAIZE AND RICE FARMERS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 11-21 #JAEES


DETERMINANTS OF ACCESS TO CREDIT AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN ABAK AGRICULTURAL ZONE, NIGERIA

Authors: NELSON U. OKORIE, KESIT K. NKEME IDARESIT U. UMOH

Abstracts: This study analyzed the determinants of access to credit among poultry farmers in Abak Agricultural Zone, AkwaI bom State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain 180 poultry farmers for the study. The primary data obtained by administering questionnaire to the respondents was analyzed using descriptive statistics, binary logit regression model . The result on socio-economic characteristics showed that many (55.6%) of the respondents were male and 72.8% of the respondents were married. The sources of credit among the poultry farmers’ were family and friends (40%), cooperative (25.3%), commercial banks (22%), bank of agriculture (8%), microfinance bank (2.7%), online borrowing (1.3%) and religious group (0.7%). The result of the regression showed that age was positively related to poultry farmers access to credit while household size, farming experience and educational level were negatively related to poultry farmers’ access to credit in the study area. High interest rate (23.2%) was the major constraint associated with poultry farmers access to credit in the study area. The study recommends that Government should formulate credit policies that will assist poultry farmers get more funds at the lowest rate of interest in order to assist them in production expansion.

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Pages: 22-35

Cite this Article: NELSON U. OKORIE, KESIT K. NKEME IDARESIT U. UMOH , "DETERMINANTS OF ACCESS TO CREDIT AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN ABAK AGRICULTURAL ZONE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 22-35 #JAEES


ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS ULTILIZATION OF E-EXTENSION SERVICES IN NIGERIA

Authors: TOR, L. G, AKINNAGBE, O. M. AND FASINA, O. O.

Abstracts: The study assessed Agricultural Extension Field Workers Awareness and Motivation for utilization of E-extension tools in Nigeria. Respondents for the study consisted of two hundred and three (203) public and private sector agricultural extension field workers in Nigeria selected across Kaduna, Benue and Oyo States using purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaire was employed for data collection while frequency counts, percentages and mean were used for the data analysis. Major findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents were male (79.8%), had Master's degree (17.7%) and were not members of any professional organization (53.7%). Result further revealed that Mobile phone call and Short Message Service (SMS) ranked 1st and 2nd as the prominent E-extension tools respondents were aware about across Kaduna, Benue and Oyo States while high level of awareness was observed for 14 out of 16 E-extension tools but were least in level of awareness observed for virtual reality (x=0.22) and USSD (x=0.40). The findings also indicated that 12 out of 16 E-extension tools were poorly utilized while only 4 tools namely WhatsApp (x =1.52), Facebook (x =1.24), mobile phone call (x = 2.16) and SMS (x=2.09) were moderately utilized. Result of respondents motivation towards use of E-extension tools revealed that they were generally demotivated indicating that E-extension tools make them waste valuable time online (x=2.68), E-extension tools are limited by telecommunication network coverage

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Pages: 36-51

Cite this Article: TOR, L. G, AKINNAGBE, O. M. AND FASINA, O. O. , "ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS ULTILIZATION OF E-EXTENSION SERVICES IN NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 36-51 #JAEES


ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AMONG SMALLHOLDER-RUBBER FARMERS IN DELTA AND EDO STATES OF NIGERIA

Authors: OTENE, F. G., IBIKUNLE O.O., WURANTI V., OGWUCHE, P., ADEYEMI, W. A., FAGBEMI, E.A., IDAHOSA E.O., OMOZUSI, J.

Abstracts: Awareness and attitudes of small-holder rubber farmers towards effects of climate change in Delta and Edo States of Nigeria were assessed. Data were collected from 286 smallscale rubber producers, randomly sampled from 36 rubber-producing communities in the study area. Data collected were analysed through descriptive statistics and chi-square. Results showed 81% uncontrolled weed infestation as one of the major effects of climate change on rubber production, 57.3% had low awareness of the effects of climate change on rubber farming. The major source of information on effects of climate change was family/friends 74.8%. The results further showed 26.9% low level contact with extension agents, 98.3% were positively disposed to climate change issues. A non-significant association (Chi-square = 0.723; p>0.050) existed between respondents' contact with extension agents and their awareness of effects of climate change, suggesting the little role played by the agents in awareness creation on climate change effects. 91.3% faced the problem of poor/low income. It is recommended that the government should make use of mass media channels to disseminate information on effects of climate change and mitigation strategies to rubber farmers and rubber farmers should be encouraged to form formal groups which can enhance their access to farm credit and timely information since they have positive attitude towards effects of climate change and would wish to mitigate them.

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Pages: 52-67

Cite this Article: OTENE, F. G., IBIKUNLE O.O., WURANTI V., OGWUCHE, P., ADEYEMI, W. A., FAGBEMI, E.A., IDAHOSA E.O., OMOZUSI, J. , "ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AMONG SMALLHOLDER-RUBBER FARMERS IN DELTA AND EDO STATES OF NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 52-67 #JAEES


SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF YAM PRODUCTION IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: ABOAJAH, F.N.

Abstracts: The research investigated the factors influencing yam production in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 180 farmers from the State were chosen using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data, which included information on the socio-economic characteristics and other relevant quantitative variables, were gathered through a well-structured questionnaire and personal interviews. Descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies were used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics, while a simple multiple regression technique was employed to assess the yam farmers' production functions. The findings revealed that the R2 value was 0.419, indicating that 41.9% of the variation in yam production could be attributed to the variables considered in the study. Specifically, factors like the farmers' age, occupation, household size, farming experience, level of education, farm size, and fertilizer usage were all found to significantly affect yam production in the study area. The results indicate that age, level of education, household size, major occupation, farming experience, farm size, and fertilizer use significantly predict production levels. Farm size emerged as the most influential factor, emphasizing the importance of larger holdings for successful farming. The findings also underscore the significance of age, education, farming experience, and household size in enhancing agricultural productivity. Given the substantial potential for yam production in the study area, it is crucial to encourage the active participation of young individuals in yam farming, especially since many farmers are aging and will eventually retire from farming. This is essential for ensuring food security. It is also vital to establish an effective system for government-provided input and credit facilities to ensure that these resources reach those who need them, helping farmers expand their production. While this study was conducted in Benue State, its implications extend to other states facing similar circumstances. This approach can aid States in achieving self-sufficiency in food production and providing for their growing populations.

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Pages: 68-83

Cite this Article: ABOAJAH, F.N. , "SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF YAM PRODUCTION IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 68-83 #JAEES


COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION LABOR IN ROOT AND TUBER CROPS: A FOCUS ON CASSAVA, YAM, AND SWEET POTATO IN BENUE STATE

Authors: BY ABOAJAH, F. N.

Abstracts: This is a study of a comparative analysis of production labor requirements for three essential root and tuber crops, namely cassava, yam, and sweet potatoes. The research findings reveal that labor allocation varies significantly among these crops, with yam demanding the highest labor input at 224 mandays per hectare, while sweet potatoes require the least at 151 mandays per hectare. Cassava falls between the two, with 183 mandays per hectare. Factors contributing to these variations in field production labor include the bulkiness of planting materials, harvest output, and crop plant density. This study provides valuable insights into the dynamics of labor allocation in root and tuber crop production, with implications for agricultural practices and food security. In light of the findings presented in the comparative analysis it is recommended that further research be conducted to address the identified gaps and enhance the robustness of the study.

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Pages: 84-95

Cite this Article: BY ABOAJAH, F. N. , "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION LABOR IN ROOT AND TUBER CROPS: A FOCUS ON CASSAVA, YAM, AND SWEET POTATO IN BENUE STATE", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 84-95 #JAEES


UTILIZATION OF E-EXTENSION AMONG AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS IN NIGERIA: FROM THE USES AND GRATIFICATION PERSPECTIVE

Authors: TOR, L. G, AKINNAGBE, O. M. AND FASINA, O. O.

Abstracts: The efficiency and effectiveness of the agricultural extension field workers is seen in their ability to provide information that helps farmers carry out their production optimally. Eextension tools are seen as having the potential to help agricultural extension field workers achieve the objectives of reaching higher number of clientele in spite of the current low extension agent-farmers ratio. Despite the low utilization of E-extension in Nigeria compared to other developing nation, the current national and global circumstances present the perfect opportunity for the country to launch full scale and get the best from Eextension. This theoretical paper discusses the concept of E-extension, its importance in helping farmers increase their access to agricultural advisory services for improve food production towards Nigerian agricultural transformation agenda. It also proposes a model that gives clarity to the utilization of E-extension tools by agricultural extension field workers applying the uses and gratification theory and concluded by emphasizing how the current challenges of low extension agent-farmers ratio, rising insecurity and COVID-19 restrictions can become the spring board to fully tap E-extension for the nation's agriculture. The study ends by recommending that agricultural extension organizations should learn from the lessons of COVID 19 lock down and fully embrace E-extension for uninterrupted food supply in Nigeria.

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Pages: 96-109

Cite this Article: TOR, L. G, AKINNAGBE, O. M. AND FASINA, O. O. , "UTILIZATION OF E-EXTENSION AMONG AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS IN NIGERIA: FROM THE USES AND GRATIFICATION PERSPECTIVE", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 96-109 #JAEES


ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES AMONG VEGETABLES MARKETERS IN UMUAHIA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: EKWEANYA, N. M., IGBOKWE, N. I.

Abstracts: This study, conducted in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria, focused on assessing post-harvest losses among vegetable marketers. Vegetable farmers in Abia State formed the population of the study. A random sampling technique was employed to select a sample of 80 vegetable marketers, who formed the sample size of the study. Data were collected through copies of a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that a majority of vegetable marketers were male (62.5%), and majority (68.75%) of the respondent were within the age range of 31-40, 75% of marketers were married, and all had some form of formal education, with 60% having a Senior Secondary Certificate. The average marketing experience was 10.5 years, while farming experience averaged 14 years, Vegetable marketers earned an average of N10,257 daily, N9,196.25 weekly, and N22,375 monthly. Container (x= 3.11) was the primary storage facility used by vegetable marketers. The major challenge reported was limited vegetable supply (x= 3.64). In conclusion, poor storage facilities was identified as the major cause of post-harvest losses within the study area hence, this study recommends improving storage conditions and practices to mitigate these losses. Additionally, the findings suggest promoting diversification in vegetable types, supporting small-scale farmers and women entrepreneurs, and investing in improved storage facilities.

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Pages: 110-120

Cite this Article: EKWEANYA, N. M., IGBOKWE, N. I. , "ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES AMONG VEGETABLES MARKETERS IN UMUAHIA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 110-120 #JAEES


AWARENESS AND ADAPTATION OF COVID-19 PREVENTIVE MEASURES BY CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABAK AGRICULTURAL ZONE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: NELSON U OKORIE, KESIT K. NKEME IDARAESIT UMOH

Abstracts: This study is to analyzed the awareness and adaptation of covid-19 preventive measure by cassava farmers in Abak Agricultural Zone, Akwa Ibom State. Specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economics characteristics of the respondents in the study area; ascertain the level of awareness of cassava farmers to covid-19 preventive measures; determine the factors affecting the adaptation of covid-19 preventive measures; determine the correlation between awareness and adaptation of covid-19 preventive measures. Multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select one hundred sixty-five (165) respondents. Primary data was collected through administration of structured questionnaires and data collected was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and multiple regression model. The result revealed that majority (56.4%) were female and 64.8% of them were married with a mean age of 49.02years. The findings also showed majority (82%) of the farmers were highly educated with a mean years of 10.53years of farming experience. All (100%) of the respondents were aware that hand-washing with soap and running water could prevent the acquisition or spread of the novel corona virus, with a similar percentage reporting that wearing a face mask in public places was equally important. The result reveals that Gender, Family size, Lack of better understanding and Poor attention of the pandemic by the community member were significant factor affecting the adaptation to covid-19 preventive measures by cassava farmers in the study area. the study recommended that the preventive measures of the disease, more intervention effort using different tools should be employed by either communicating to or reaching out to cassava farmers in the study area on preventive measure of the disease.

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Pages: 121-136

Cite this Article: NELSON U OKORIE, KESIT K. NKEME IDARAESIT UMOH , "AWARENESS AND ADAPTATION OF COVID-19 PREVENTIVE MEASURES BY CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABAK AGRICULTURAL ZONE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 121-136 #JAEES


EFFECT OF ROOT AND TUBER EXPANSION PROGRAMME (RTEP) ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN UMUAHIA SOUTH, ABIA STATE

Authors: EKWEANYA, N. M., IGBOKWE, N. I.

Abstracts: This study examined the effect of Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) On Women Empowerment in Cassava Production and Processing in Umuahia South, Abia State. Female cassava farmers formed the population of the study, of which 80 were selected through purposive and multi-staged sampling. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Research findings revealed that beneficiaries exhibited significantly higher mean annual output (8,315kg) and mean income (N91,500), underscoring the positive impact of the RTEP program on productivity and financial wellbeing. Hypotheses testing confirms a statistically significant difference in both mean annual output of beneficiaries (950.79kg) and non-beneficiaries (754.805kg) at 5% level of significance (p<0.05). Also, income between beneficiaries (N50042.5) and non beneficiaries (N24130) was also statistically different at 5% level of significance (p<0.05), emphasizing the program's role in improving the economic outcomes of participants. In conclusion, the study highlights the positive impact of the Root and Tuber Expansion Programme on women's empowerment in cassava production and processing, leading to increased productivity and income and more attention should give to improving the activities of the programme and encourage non-participants to partake in the programme. The study also recommends that the program exposure and outreach be strengthened, focus more on cultural practices and inputs and expand access to credits.

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Pages: 137-147

Cite this Article: EKWEANYA, N. M., IGBOKWE, N. I. , "EFFECT OF ROOT AND TUBER EXPANSION PROGRAMME (RTEP) ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN UMUAHIA SOUTH, ABIA STATE", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 137-147 #JAEES


EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FISH PRODUCTION AND FISH FARMERS' LIVELIHOOD IN UKWUANI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF AREA, DELTA STATE

Authors: T. M. GBIGBI, P. E. EDOJA, A. O. EVANWAWERAE

Abstracts: This study examined the effect of climate change on fish production and fish farmers' livelihood in Ukwuani Local Government Area, Delta State. A multistage random sampling procedure was adopted in the selection of 120 respondents used for the study. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire which were structured according to the specific objectives of the study. Data generated from the study were analyzed using descriptive such as mean, frequency distribution, percentage and inferential statistics such as Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Regression analysis. The study revealed that 63.3% of the respondents were male and 36.7% were female. The average age of the respondents was 40 years. Majority (88.3%) of the fish farmers produced catfish while 11.7% of them produced tilapia. The mean stock size of the respondents in the study area was 2,313 fishes. The average farming experience in the study area was 6 years. The average production by the respondents was 227.1 kg. The average monthly income earned by the respondents per production cycle was ₦199,871.2. It was also established by the study that all the climatic factors examined were all found to be prevalent in the research area. These climatic factors include; floods (mean = 3.2); excessive heat (mean = 2.7); storm (mean = 3.1); erosion (mean = 3.2); and drought (mean = 3.1). The result on the effect of the prevalent climatic factors on fish farmers' production output reveals an R2 of 0.4470 (45%) and an adjusted R2 of 0.4207 (42%). Floods (B = -1.9662; p<0.05) and storm (B = -1.0542; p<0.01) had statistically significant of production output at 5% and 1% probability level respectively. The study recommends that a fisheries management plan is urgently needed to protect fishery resources and sustain the marine ecosystem's capacity to contribute to coastal livelihoods for the long-term.

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Pages: 148-163

Cite this Article: T. M. GBIGBI, P. E. EDOJA, A. O. EVANWAWERAE , "EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FISH PRODUCTION AND FISH FARMERS' LIVELIHOOD IN UKWUANI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF AREA, DELTA STATE", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 148-163 #JAEES


ADAPTATION MEASURES AGAINST FLOODING UTILIZED BY ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN ABAK AGRICULTURAL ZONE, AKWA IBOM STATE.

Authors: NELSON U OKORIE, KESIT K. NKEME IDARAESIT UMOH

Abstracts: The study analysed the adaptation measures against flooding utilized by arable crop farmers in Abak Agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 189 randomly selected respondents. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and likert scale. The results showed that 59.26 percent of the respondents were female and 40.74 percent were male. The mean age of the respondents was 46 percent. About 65.61 percent of the respondents were married while 10.58 percent were single. About 65.61 percent were members of social organizations while 34.39 were non-members. The mean household size was 5. About 51.32 percent of the respondents had farm of 1-2 hectares of land for arable crop production, 36.51 percent had less than 1 and 9.25 and 2.65 percent had 2-3 and above 4 respectively. The major adaptation measures utilized were land planning pattern, planting of resistant crop, terracing, ridging, and use of drainage systems. Findings showed that lack of funds and inability to access loans, poor access to sources of information, land tenure, lack of access to weather forecast technologies, and lack of drought resistant crops were constraints to adaptation strategies among arable crop farmers in the study areas. It is recommended that farmers whose farms are vulnerable to flooding should be encouraged with small and revolving loans to help them mitigate the effect of the situation.

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Pages: 164-175

Cite this Article: NELSON U OKORIE, KESIT K. NKEME IDARAESIT UMOH , "ADAPTATION MEASURES AGAINST FLOODING UTILIZED BY ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN ABAK AGRICULTURAL ZONE, AKWA IBOM STATE.", Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Science (JAEES), http://www.JAEES.org/online-papers-publishing/new/September2023, Volume 9 - Issue 2, September 2023 Edition, 164-175 #JAEES